American Indians and World War II: Toward a New Era in by Alison R. Bernstein

By Alison R. Bernstein

The effect of global warfare II on Indian affairs was once extra profound and lasting than that of the other occasion or policy--including Roosevelt’s Indian New Deal and efforts to terminate federal accountability for tribes below Eisenhower. targeting the interval from 1941 to 1947, Alison R. Bernstein explains why termination and tribal self-determination have been logical result of the Indians’ international warfare II reviews in conflict and at the domestic front.

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The War's Aftermath: Turning American Indians into Indian Americans 159 Notes 177 Bibliography 225 Index Page ix Illustrations Banning the Swastika, 1940 20 Papago Indians sign up for the draft 25 Members of the Iroquois Confederacy resist draft 29 Menominee chief, 1943 45 Indian women Marine Corps reservists 47 Private, First Class, Ira Hayes, at Paratroop School 51 Mount Suribachi, Iwo Jima, flag raisers 52 North Carolina Cherokee mother buying war bonds, 1944 69 Commissioner John Collier interviewed on the Indian war effort 97 Navajo family with their sailor son 135 A "Mercy Caravan" reaches needy Indians at Gallup, New Mexico, 1947 172 Page xi Preface Beginning in 1969 with the publication of Vine Deloria's Custer Died for Your Sins, there has been a continuing stream of scholarly monographs and popular accounts detailing the history of American Indians.

2 million acres of agricultural land to whites. In short, more than 25 percent of the usable Indian land (approximately 14 million acres) in 1940 was not being utilized by Indians, but by whites who obtained leases at low prices from inexperienced or struggling Indian landlords. Moreover, the forty-one million acres still under Indian control provided an inadequate land base for reservation Indians. 39 Even if Indians with more than one-half non-Indian blood were removed from the reservation, the remainder could still not be supported on the land available in 1940.

Drayton, Editor-in-Chief of the University of Oklahoma Press, encouraged my plans for publication and waited patiently for the final manuscript. There are people who stayed the course with me through the entire journey. My parents and my aunt Sarah Goldstein were a source of strength and encouragement. Robert Trent, Maxine Bronstein, and Adrian Tinsley gave freely of their time, spurred me on to finish the task, and when it was done, helped celebrate its accomplishment. Moreover, this study would not have been possible without the intellec- Page xiv tual support provided by Joan Hoff Wilson.

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