Aerodynamic characteristics of multi-surface aircraft by Z. Patek, L. Smrcek

By Z. Patek, L. Smrcek

Plane layout 2 (1999) 191 - 206

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12a extend over a relatively small range of airflow and that the surge line has an almost discontinuous slope. The prevalence of rotating stall at the lower speeds is also noted. The difference between the curves is a consequence of stage matching problems that are intensified by increases in compressor pressure ratio. See Chapter 3 of Ref. 2. Every effort should be made to stay to the right of the surge line. At high speeds, surging can be explosive. Running at or beyond the surge line at any speed can cause the compressor efficiency to deteriorate so badly that an engine cannot function.

The off-design behavior of the components of this engine is similar to the two-shaft turbojet, since the turbines and jet divide the pressure ratio in about the same way. Observe that when the ETR is lowered, the power to the jet diminishes faster than that to the fan. The discussion of turbofan engines in Sec. 3 demonstrated that there is an optimum division of these powers, which depends on flight speed and internal efficiencies. Prolonged operation at two or more flight conditions requires the power division to be compromised unless some variable feature is provided.

L)OUT with the corrected turbine speed can be found by using the scheme applied to Fig. 19. Performance trends. z calculated from the data at the design point, we can again estimate where the compressors operate during various off-design conditions. The curves CAB in Fig. 23 are somewhat representative, although this example (which happens to be the only one readily available) represents the case where the engine nozzle area is varied to maintain the outer unit at a constant mechanical speed. The general trends are valid, although the mechanical speed of the outer unit would vary over a much wider range for the same ETR if the engine nozzle were fixed.

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