By Wu F.
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Statistic redundancy — The symbols that describe visual information are not random. They present a strong nonuniform distribution. 2, they can be efficiently represented by source coding. All image and video compression schemes are designed in an effort to fully exploit the four types of redundancies. The target is to minimize distortion for a given compression rate or minimize compression rate for a given distortion. 1. This framework is featured in hybrid motion compensation and transform. So it is called hybrid video coding.
The objective of the so-called source coding is to find a source code C mapping all possible values of a random variable S in the alphabet A to a set of finite length of binary strings (also called codewords). The mapping must be one-to-one so that we can only recover a unique value from one given codeword. Let C(ai ) denote the codeword corresponding to s = ai and l(ai ) denote the length of C(ai ). Therefore, the expected length L(S) is given by L(S) = ∑ pi l(ai ). 20) i Shannon’s first theorem states the relationship between the expected length and the entropy.
2. 2a is one input picture in the Foreman sequence. 2b. We can observe that the reconstructed picture has some slight block artifacts because of compression. Although the input picture and the reconstructed picture look similar, the head in the input picture has a rotation with respect to the reconstructed picture. 2c shows the moving displacement of every input 8 × 8 block. It is a 2D MV, whose direction indicates the moving direction and magnitude is the moving distance. 2 An example of motion estimation and compensation.