Abnormal Formation Pressures: Implications to Exploration, by Walter H. Fertl

By Walter H. Fertl

Petroleum formation pressures

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Extra info for Abnormal Formation Pressures: Implications to Exploration, Drilling, and Production of Oil and Gas Resources

Example text

Oomkens (1966)discussed this phenomenon caused by the loading characteristics of migrating dunes that move over impermeable clayey surfaces, thereby locally increasing pore fluid pressures in underlying water sands. The results are small sand dikes intruding from below into the clayey formation. This is confirmed by field observations (Walton and O’Sullivan, 1950) of sandstone dikes intruding a sill. As the driving mechanism, the authors refer to abnormally high pore fluid pressures caused by the heating of formation water.

R. Transverse faults salt and shale diapirs worldwide Combination of vertical and transverse worldwide ABNORMALLY HIGH FORMATION PRESSURES 15 concerns the stages in the rock’s diagenesis during which sealing was accomplished, and “How” relates to the cap-rock chemical composition, the type of aqueous formation fluids from which minerals are precipitated, the prevailing pressure and temperature environments, etc. The existence of any mineral is a function of the stability field indigenous to the mineral species.

In these areas, a strong antiregional dip developed that increased with depth and time. Contemporaneous faults, formed during still-stand and regressive phases of deposition, are common in southern Texas and are considered to have developed prjmarily through differential compaction associated with relatively flat sea floors. Faults formed during transgressive phases of deposition are present in southern Texas; however, they are less common than the other two forms. lSc), the sea floor is considered to have been inclined basinward at an angle related to the rate of subsidence.

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