By Harry A. Hoffner
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Extra resources for A grammar of the Hittite language: Reference grammar
26 rev. , NH). 137 (p. 4 with n. 10 (p. 138), and AHP 29. Internal sequences of three consonants, the ﬁrst of which is /n/, sometimes left the /n/ graphically unexpressed (so Kimball 1999: 315–16): li-ik-zi (/linktsi/) ‘he swears’ and li-ik-ta ‘he swore’. 12. The normal rules of cuneiform writing require that a VC sign either occur word-ﬁnal or be followed by a CV(C) sign. 9). 11). , pár-aḫ-ta represents /parhta/. In some cases, however, evidence shows that a CVC-VC spelling is merely shorthand for CV-CV-VC: LÚḫi-ip-pár-aš or ḫu(-u)-up-pár-aš alongside ḫu-up-pa-ra-aš.
50. 51. ’ (never *i-ḫu), e-ku-zi ‘he drinks’ (never *i-ku-zi), eeš(-ša)-ri ‘form, shape, image’ (never *iš-ša-ri), ega- ‘ice’ (never *i-ga-), enant- ‘tame (animal)’, ētri- ‘food’. 52. 53. Word-ﬁnal: ku(-i)-e ‘which’ (pl. ), a-pé-e ‘those’ (pl. -acc. ) — pé-e in pé-e ḫar(k)- ‘to present’, and le-e ‘let not’. The contrast of the plural ke-e ‘these’ with (neuter) singular ki-i ‘this’ is stable through OH, MH, and early NH, breaking down only in late NH. 38. While many words are spelled consistently with either u or ú, there are also many cases of alternate spellings, even in the same manuscript.
167). 47 modern scholars. The following description applies to the ancient pronunciation unless explicitly stated otherwise. The cuneiform writing system has a limited ability to express the phonemes of the Hittite language. 46. 8, p. 11) oﬀered a means of expressing vowel length, but we cannot be certain that plene writing always indicates length (as opposed to stress) or that non-plene writing always denotes short vowels. Many scholars assume the existence of both short and long vowels in Hittite, but there is no consensus on their distribution or on the phonemic status of long vowels (see Melchert 1992 and Kimball 1999, both with copious references to other views).